PERANAN UNSUR-UNSUR RUANG TERBUKA PADA TINGKAT KENYAMANAN TERMAL OUTDOOR: ANTARA PERSEPSI DAN PENGETAHUAN

Floriberta Binarti, Hanson E Kusuma, Surjamanto Wonorahardjo, Sugeng Triyadi

Abstract


Abstract: Surface morphology, surface material, greenery, anthropogenic heat and air pollutants are known as the elements that determine the thermal environment performance. These elements, hence, should determine the outdoor thermal comfort level. However, previous studies mentioned that the role of psychological adaptation in outdoor thermal comfort is greater than in the indoor. Therefore, exploring perceived elements, which determine the thermal environment, could enrich the perspective of a design approach of thermally comfortable open spaces. This study aims to explore the perceived elements of thermal environment, which contribute to the outdoor thermal comfort using open-ended questions of an online questionnaire. Several keywords obtained by the content analysis of 101 respondents’ answers affirm the role of the thermal environment elements in modifying the thermal environment. Tree or greenery, the most frequently appeared keyword, showed as the strongest perceived element. New keywords that significantly appeared; i.e. visual aspects, supporting facilities, and tranquility; indicate the importance of thermo-spatial perception approach in designing livable and thermally comfortable outdoor environment.

Keywords: elements of thermal environment, outdoor thermal comfort, perception, psychological adaptation,

Abstraksi: Morfologi permukaan, permukaan material, area hijau, panas antropogenik dan polutan udara diketahui sebagai elemen-elemen yang menentukan performansi lingkungan termal. Dengan demikian, elemen-elemen tersebut seharusnya menentukan tingkat kenyamanan termal outdoor. Namun, beberapa studi menyebutkan peranan adaptasi psikis pada kenyamanan termal outdoor yang lebih besar dibandingkan pada kenyamanan termal indoor. Oleh karenanya, eksplorasi elemen-elemen yang dipersepsikan menentukan lingkungan termal dapat memperkaya perspektif pendekatan studi ruang terbuka yang nyaman secara termal. Studi ini bertujuan untuk menggali elemen-elemen lingkungan termal yang dipersepsikan berperan pada kenyamanan termal outdoor dengan menggunakan pertanyaan-pertanyaan yang bersifat open-ended di dalam kuesioner online. Beberapa kata kunci yang dihasilkan oleh analisis konten dari 101 responden mengkonfirmasi peranan elemen-elemen lingkungan termal di dalam memodifikasi lingkungan termal. Pohon atau greenery, kata kunci yang paling sering muncul, menunjukkan sebagai elemen yang dipersepsikan paling kuat. Kata kunci baru yang muncul secara signifikan, yaitu: aspek visual, fasilitas penunjang, dan ketenangan; mengindikasikan pentingnya pendekatan persepsi termo-spasial di dalam merancang lingkungan outdoor yang hidup dan nyaman secara termal.

Kata kunci: adaptasi psikis, kenyamanan termal outdoor, persepsi, unsur-unsur lingkungan termal


Keywords


elements of thermal environment, outdoor thermal comfort, perception, psychological adaptation, adaptasi psikis, kenyamanan termal outdoor, persepsi, unsur-unsur lingkungan termal

References


ASHRAE (2013): ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55 -- Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy. Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Inc.

Bahar, F. F. 2017. Model Pembayangan dan Lansekap Ruang Kota dalam Sistem Lingkungan Termal Perkotaan di Daerah Tropis Lembab. Disertasi tidak diterbitkan. Surabaya: Program Doktor Fakultas Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan, Institut Teknologi Surabaya.

Balcer, C. A. 2014. Visual Cues Effects on Temperature Perception. Tesis tidak diterbitkan. Michigan: Office of Graduate Study and Research, Northern Michigan University.

Cheng, V. & Ng., E. 2008. Wind for comfort in high density cities. Makalah disajikan dalam PLEA 2008 – 25th Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture, 22- 24 Oktober, Dublin.

Chow, W. T. L., Akbar, S. N. A. B. A., Heng, S. L. & Roth, M. 2016. Assessment of measured and perceived microclimates within a tropical urban forest. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 16: 62–75.

Coccolo, S., Kaempf, J., Scartezzini, J-L. & Pearlmutter, D. 2016. Outdoor human comfort and thermal stress: a review on models and standards. Urban Climate. Tersedia: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.uclim.2016.08.004 [diunduh 20 November 2017].

Creswell, J. 2013. Research Design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. London: SAGE.

Djedjig, R., Belarbi, R., Bozonnet, E., Crépeau, A. M. & Rochelle, L. 2013. Experimental Study of a Green Wall System Effects in Urban Canyon Scene. Makalah disajikan dalam Clima 2013: 11th Rehva World Congress and the 8th International Conference on Indoor Air, 16 December 2016, 1-9.

Evola, G., Gagliano, A., Fichera, A., Marletta, L., Martinico, F., Nocera, F. & Pagano, A. 2017. UHI effects and strategies to improve outdoor thermal comfort in dense and old neighborhoods. Energy Procedia 134: 692–701.

Garson, D.G. 2015. Missing Value Analysis and Data Imputation. Asheboro: Statistical Publishing Associates.

Hamilton, J. M. & Lau, M. A. 2005. The role of climate information in tourist destination choice decision-making. Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Biometeorology (ICB 2005), Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, 9–5 September 2005. Offenbach am Main: Deutscher Wetterdienst.

Johansson, E. & Yahia, M. W. 2012. Improving outdoor thermal comfort in warm-humid Guayaquil, Ecuador through urban design. Makalah disajikan dalam ICUC8 – 8th International Conference on Urban Climates, 6-10 Agustus 2012, Dublin: UCD.

Johansson, E., Yahia, M. W., Arroyo, I. & Bengs, C. 2017. Outdoor thermal comfort in public space in warm-humid Guayaquil, Ecuador. International Journal of Biometeorology, DOI 10.1007/s00484-017-1329-x.

Kleerekoper, L., Van Esch, M. & Salcedo, T. B. 2012. How to make a city climate-proof, addressing the urban heat island effect. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 64: 30–38.

Klemm, W., Heusinkveld, B. G., Lenzholzer, S. & van Hove, B. 2015. Street greenery and its physical and psychological impact on thermal comfort. Landscape and Urban Planning 138: 87–98.

Koerniawan, M. D. 2016. Effect of Urban Structure on Thermal Comfort And Walking Comfort in Jakarta, Disertasi tidak diterbitkan. Kitakyushu: Faculty of Environmental Engineering, the University of Kitakyushu.

Kothari, C., Kumar, R. & Uusitalo, O. 2014. Research Methodology. New Age International. Tersedia: https://doi.org/http://196.29.172.66:8080/jspui/bitstream/123456789/2574/1/Research%20Methodology.pdf [diunduh 27 September 2017].

Krippendorff, K. 2004. Content Analysis: An Introduction to Its Methodology. London: SAGE.

Krüger, E. L., Minella, F. O. & Rasia, F. 2011. Impact of urban geometry on outdoor thermal comfort and air quality from field measurements in Curitiba, Brazil, Building and Environment 46: 621–634.

Lenzholzer, S. 2010. Engrained experience-a comparison of microclimate perception schemata and microclimate measurements in Dutch urban squares. International Journal of Biometeorology 54(2): 141–150.

Lenzholzer, S., Klemm, W. & Vasilikou, C. 2016. Qualitative methods to explore thermo-spatial perception in outdoor urban spaces. Urban Climate. Tersedia: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.uclim.2016.10.003 [Diunduh 28 September 2017].

Lenzholzer, S. & Koh, J. 2010. Immersed in microclimatic space: Microclimate experience and perception of spatial configurations in Dutch squares. Landscape and Urban Planning 95(1–2): 1–15.

Lin, T. P., Hwang, C. C. & Cheng, H. Y. 2006. The influence of climate information on travel arrangements. Proceedings of the 8th Leisure, Recreation and Tourism Research Symposium, Taipei, 7 Oktober 2006. Outdoor Recreation Association, Taipei, 120-126.

Lin, T. -P. & Matzarakis, A. 2008. Tourism climate and thermal comfort in Sun Moon Lake, Taiwan. International Journal of Biometeorology 52: 281–290.

Mahmoud, A. H. A. 2011. Analysis of the microclimatic and human comfort conditions in an urban park in hot and arid regions. Building and Environment 46(12): 2641–2656.

Marakemi, N., Salleh, E., Jaafar, M. Z. & Hoseini, A. H. G. H. 2012. Thermal comfort conditions of shaded outdoor spaces in hot and humid climate of Malaysia. Building and Environment 48: 7–14.

Memon, R. A., Leung, D. Y. C., & Chunho, L. I. U. 2008. A review on the generation, determination and mitigation of Urban Heat Island. Journal of Environmental Science 20: 120–128.

Mustika, N. W. M. & Sastrawan, I. W. W. 2017. Persepsi Tingkat Kenyamanan Termal Ruang Luar Pada Ruang Publik (Studi Kasus: Taman Kota I Gusti Ngurah Made Agung). Jurnal Arsitektur Warmadewa 5(1): 45–56.

Nikolopoulou, M. & Lykoudis, S. 2006. Thermal comfort in outdoor urban spaces: Analysis across different European countries. Building and Environment 41(11): 1455–1470.

Nikolopoulou, M. & Steemers, K. 2003. Thermal comfort and psychological adaptation as a guide for designing urban spaces. Energy and Building 35(1): 95–101.

Niu, J., Liu, J., Lee, T-c., Lin, Z., Mak, C., Tse, K-T., Bo-sin Tang, B-s., Kenny C. S. & Kwok, K. C. S. 2015. A new method to assess spatial variations of outdoor thermal comfort: onsite monitoring results and implications for precinct planning. Building and Environment, Tersedia: http://hdl.handle.net/10722/209950 [Diunduh 25 November 2017].

Oke, T. R., Mills, G., Christen, A. & Voogt, J. A. 2017. Urban Climates. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pijpers-Van Esch, M. M. 2015: Designing the Urban Microclimate, Delf: Architecture and the Built Environment.

Reiter, S. & de Herde, A. 2003. Qualitative and quantitative criteria for comfortable urban public spaces. 2nd International Conference on Building Physics, 1001–1009. Tersedia: http://orbi.ulg.ac.be/handle/2268/20554 [Diunduh 28 September 2017].

Sangkertadi, S. & Syafriny, R. 2016. Pair influence of wind speed and mean radiant temperature on outdoor thermal comfort of humid tropical environment. Journal of Urban and Environmental Engineering 10(2): 177-185.

Santamouris, M. 2014. Cooling the cities - A review of reflective and green roof mitigation technologies to fight heat island and improve comfort in urban environments. Solar Energy 103: 682–703.

Scarano, M. & Sobrino, J. A. 2015. On the relationship between the sky view factor and the land surface temperature derived by Landsat-8 images in Bari, Italy. International Journal of Remote Sensing 36(19–20): 4820–4835.

Steeneveld, G. J., Koopmans, S., Heusinkveld, B. G. & Theeuwes, N. E. 2014. Refreshing the role of open water surfaces on mitigating the maximum urban heat island effect. Landscape and Urban Planning 121: 92–96.

Syafii, N. I., Ichinose, M., Wong, N. H., Kumakura, E., Jusuf, S. K. dan Chigua, K. 2016. Experimental study on th influence of urban water body on thermal environment at outdoor scale model. Procedia Engineering 169: 191–198.

Tauhid. 2008. Kajian Jarak Jangkau Efek Vegetasi Pohon Terhadap Suhu Udara pada Siang Hari di Perkotaan (Studi Kasus: Kawasan Simpang Lima Semarang). Tesis tidak dipublikasi. Semarang: Program Studi Ilmu Lingkungan Program Pascasarjana, Universitas Diponegoro.

Wang, Y., de Groot, R., Bakker, F., Wortche, H. & Leemans, R. 2017. Thermal comfort in urban green spaces: a survey on a Dutch university campus. International Journal of Biometeorology 61(1): 87–101.

Wong, N. H. & Yu, C. 2005. Study of green areas and urban heat island in a tropical city. Habitat International 29: 547–558.

Wong, N. H. & Jusuf, S. K. 2010. Air temperature distribution and the influence of sky view factor in a Green Singapore Estate. Journal of Urban Planning and Development 136(3): 261–272.

Wong, N. H., Kwang Tan, A. Y., Chen, Y., Sekar, K., Tan, P. Y., Chan, D., Wong, N. C. 2010. Thermal evaluation of vertical greenery systems for building walls. Building and Environment 45(3): 663–672.

Wonorahardjo, S. 2009. Pengaruh Karakteristik Fisik Terhadap Fenomena Pulau Panas (Heat Island) Kawasan Kota di Bandung. Disertasi tidak diterbitkan, Bandung: Program Doktor Sekolah Arsitektur, Perencanaan dan Pengembangan Kebijakan, Institut Teknologi Bandung.


Full Text: PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.