MOSQUES IN RURAL AREAS ARE A FORM OF CULTURAL ACCULTURATION IN INDONESIA. Case study: Mosques in Muntilan Village, Central Java, Indonesia

Eugenius Pradipto, Maria Ariadne Dewi Wulansari, Natasha Nurul Annisa

Abstract


Architectural form is a physical manifestation of culture as it acknowledges and responds the surrounding cultural context. Religious architecture also belongs into this principle. In Indonesia, the encounter between Islam coming from foreign Muslim merchants and the high culture of indigenous people fostered a process of cultural assimilation, which was also evident in the physical appearance of religious architecture products such as mosques. Demak Mosque, one of the earliest examples of this process, was completed during the period of nine pioneering Islamic scholars (Walisongo) c. 1401 AD and adopted the traditional tiered tajug roof from Pura (Balinese Hindu temple) and some other principles based on Hinduistic values. This paper set out to observe the process of cultural assimilation in form and construction of six mosques in the area of Muntilan, Central Java by comparing them to Masjid Demak, and to understand whether the alterations found in these mosques were done due to changes in religious values. The results show that most mosques have similar-looking exterior to Masjid Demak while there were increasing amount of alterations in newer mosques, mainly to improve the mosques’ functionality.


Keywords


Development; Form and Construction; Islamic Architecture; Java; Mosque

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ariestadi, D, 2008, Teknik Struktur Bangunan (Building Structure Techniques), Direktorat Pembinaan Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan.

Davison, J, and Granquist, B, 2012, Balinese Temples, Hong Kong: Tuttle Publishing.

DeSilver, D, and Masci, D, 2018, World Muslim population more widespread than you might think, Pew Research Center, http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/01/31/worlds-muslim-population-more-widespread-than-you-might-think/ Accessed 12 Dec. 2018.

Hidayat, T, 2009, Bangunan Masjid Menurut Al-Quran dan Hadits (Mosque Buildings According to Al-Quran and Hadith), Jurnal Desain Produk Industri, FTSP ITS: Surabaya.

Kintamani.id, 2018, Pura Taman Ayun Bali, Pura Bersejarah dengan Pemandangan yang Memukau (Pura Taman Ayun Bali, Historical Pura with Riveting View). https://www.kintamani.id/pura-taman-ayun-bali-pura-bersejarah-dengan-pemandangan-yang-memukau-00164.html, Accessed 17 Dec. 2018.

Koentjaraningrat, 1990, Pengantar Ilmu Antropologi (Introduction to Anthropology), Jakarta: PT Rineka Cipta.

Laksono, P.M, 1985, Tradisi dalam Struktur Masyarakat Jawa: Kerajaan dan Pedesaan (Tradition in Javanese Societal Structure: Kingdom and Villages), Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press.

Lehner, E, 2013, Towards a Documentation Project on Javanese Candis. On Insular Diversity, Institute of Comparative Research in Architecture. IVA-ICRA, Vienna, Austria.

Mangunwijaya, Y.B, 1988. Wastu Citra (Image of Buildings), Jakarta: Gramedia.

Muanas, et al, 1998, Arsitektur Tradisional Daerah Jawa Barat (Traditional Architecture of West Java).

Ossenbruggen, F.D.E. Van, 1975, Asal Usul Konsep Jawa Tentang Mancapat Dalam Hubungannya Dengan Sistim-Sistim Klasifikasi Primitif (The Origin of the Javanese Concept of Mancapat in Its Relationship with Primitive Classification Systems), Jakarta: Bhratara.

Rapoport, A, 1969, House Form and Culture, Prentice Hall International.

Ricklefs, M, 2008, A History of Modern Indonesia Since c. 1200, Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.

Rujivacharakul, V., Hahn, H., Ōshima, K. and Christensen, P, 2014. Architecturalized Asia, Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, pp.126.

Schodek, Daniel L, 1999, Struktur (Alih Bahasa) edisi kedua (Structure, Second Edition,. Jakarta. Erlangga.

Zenz, R, 2004, Cross-section of Hagia Sophia, Available online at: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hagia-Sophia-Laengsschnitt.jpg Accessed 2 Jan. 2019.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.24002/jars.v14i1.3680

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.